** PHYSICS 103 — GENERAL PHYSICS**

4 credits.

Introduction to physics at the non-calculus level. Principles of mechanics, heat, and waves, with applications to a number of different fields. Not recommended for students in the physical sciences and engineering.

**PHYSICS 104 — GENERAL PHYSICS**

4 credits.

Continuation of PHYSICS 103. Principles of electricity and magnetism, light, optics, and modern physics, with applications to a number of different fields. Not recommended for students in the physical sciences and engineering.

** PHYSICS 107 — THE IDEAS OF MODERN PHYSICS**

3 credits.

The twentieth-century physical world picture and its origins. Selected topics in classical physics, relativity, and the quantum theory with emphasis on the meaning of basic concepts and their broader implications, rather than practical applications.

** PHYSICS 109 — PHYSICS IN THE ARTS**

3 credits.

The nature of sound and sound perception; fundamentals of harmony, musical scales, and musical instruments. Studies of light including lenses, photography, color perception, and color mixing.

** PHYSICS 115 — ENERGY**

3 credits.

Introduction to energy, focusing on energy sources and the environment. Gives students the necessary physics background to form opinions on energy questions. The physical laws of thermodynamics, electricity, and magnetism, and nuclear physics in connection with energy-related topics such as: thermal pollution, fossil power, fission and fusion, nuclear power, and solar power.

**PHYSICS 198 — DIRECTED STUDY**

1-3 credits.

Introductory-level mentored research project in physics.

**PHYSICS 199 — DIRECTED STUDY**

1-3 credits.

Introductory-level mentored research project in physics.

** PHYSICS 201 — GENERAL PHYSICS**

5 credits.

Calculus-based introduction to physics intended for engineering students. Mechanics: kinematics, statics, dynamics; energy and momentum.

**PHYSICS 202 — GENERAL PHYSICS**

5 credits.

Calculus-based introduction to physics intended for engineering students. Electricity, magnetism, light, and sound.

**PHYSICS 205 — MODERN PHYSICS FOR ENGINEERS**

3 credits.

Introduction to atomic, solid state, and nuclear physics.

**PHYSICS 206 — SPECIAL TOPICS IN PHYSICS**

1-5 credits.

Special topics in physics at the intermediate undergraduate level.

** PHYSICS 207 — GENERAL PHYSICS**

5 credits.

Calculus-based introduction to physics intended for students majoring in biological sciences. Mechanics: kinematics, statics, dynamics; energy and momentum. Heat and sound.

**PHYSICS 208 — GENERAL PHYSICS**

5 credits.

Continuation of PHYSICS 207: calculus-based introduction to physics intended for students majoring in biological sciences. Electricity, magnetism, light, and modern physics.

**PHYSICS/E C E 235 — INTRODUCTION TO SOLID STATE ELECTRONICS**

3 credits.

An introduction to the physical principles underlying solid-state electronic and photonic devices, including elements of quantum mechanics, crystal structure, semiconductor band theory, carrier statistics, and band diagrams. Offers examples of modern semiconductor structures. Prior experience with MATLAB [such as E C E 203] is strongly encouraged but not required.

**PHYSICS 241 — INTRODUCTION TO MODERN PHYSICS**

3 credits.

Kinetic theory; relativity; experimental origin of quantum theory; atomic structure and spectral lines; topics in solid state, nuclear and particle physics.

**PHYSICS 247 — A MODERN INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS**

5 credits.

Calculus-based introduction to physics intended for Physics, AMEP, and Astronomy-Physics majors. Mechanics, waves, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, topics in modern physics; with computation. A more mathematically rigorous and in-depth introduction to physics than the other introductory physics sequences.

**PHYSICS 248 — A MODERN INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS**

5 credits.

Continuation of PHYSICS 247. Electromagnetism, circuits, optics, additional topics in modern physics; with computation.

**PHYSICS 249 — A MODERN INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS**

4 credits.

Continuation of PHYSICS 248. Modern physics: introduction to quantum mechanics, topics from nuclear and particle physics, condensed matter physics, and atomic physics. Three lectures and one discussion per week.

**PHYSICS/MED PHYS 265 — INTRODUCTION TO MEDICAL PHYSICS**

2 credits.

A general interest survey that introduces the principles and applications of medical physics. Topics include biomechanics, energy usage and temperature regulation, pressure, sound and hearing, ultrasound, electricity in the body, optics and the eye, ionizing radiation in diagnosis and therapy, radiobiology, and nuclear medicine.

**PHYSICS 298 — DIRECTED STUDY**

1-3 credits.

Intermediate-level mentored research project in physics.

**PHYSICS 299 — DIRECTED STUDY**

1-3 credits.

Intermediate-level mentored research project in physics.

**PHYSICS 301 — PHYSICS TODAY**

1 credit.

A series of weekly presentations and discussions of current research topics in physics, by scientists directly involved in those studies. Provides undergraduates with access to the topics and excitement of the research frontier in a manner not possible in normal subject courses.

**PHYSICS 307 — INTERMEDIATE LABORATORY-MECHANICS AND MODERN PHYSICS**

2 credits.

Experiments in modern physics, with discussion of statistical uncertainties and error analysis. Propagation of error. Available labs include gamma-ray spectroscopy, X-ray physics and diffraction, blackbody radiation, and Cavendish measurement of the gravitational constant G.

**PHYSICS 311 — MECHANICS**

3 credits.

Origin and development of classical mechanics; mathematical techniques, especially vector analysis; conservation laws and their relation to symmetry principles; brief introduction to orbit theory and rigid-body dynamics; accelerated coordinate systems; introduction to the generalized-coordinate formalisms of Lagrange and Hamilton.

**PHYSICS 321 — ELECTRIC CIRCUITS AND ELECTRONICS**

4 credits.

Direct current circuits, circuit theorems, alternating current circuits, transients, non-sinusoidal sources, Fourier analysis, characteristics of semiconductor devices, typical electronic circuits, feedback, non-linear circuits; digital and logic circuits.

**PHYSICS 322 — ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS**

3 credits.

Electrostatic fields, capacitance, multi-pole expansion, dielectric theory; magnetostatics; electromagnetic induction; magnetic properties of matter; Maxwell's equations and electromagnetic waves; relativity and electromagmetism. Experiments for this course are covered in Physics 308.

**PHYSICS 323 — ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS**

3 credits.

Special relativity, electromagnetic momentum, electromagnetic waves: propagation, interference, scattering, reflection and refraction at a dielectric interface, waves in a conductor. Wave packets and group velocity, dispersion. Waveguides and transmission lines. Retarded potentials. Radiation.

**PHYSICS 325 — OPTICS**

4 credits.

Classical and modern optics, including imaging, polarization optics, optical telescopes, optical microscopes, interference and interferometers, optical fibers and fiber-optic communication, optical resonators, lasers, optical modulators, introduction to quantum and nonlinear optics. Concepts covered in lecture reinforced by weekly laboratory experiments.

** PHYSICS 371 — ACOUSTICS FOR MUSICIANS**

3 credits.

Intended for music students who wish to learn about physical basis of sound, sound perception, musical scales, musical instruments, and room acoustics.

**PHYSICS 406 — SPECIAL TOPICS IN PHYSICS**

1-4 credits.

Special topics in physics at the advanced undergraduate level.

**PHYSICS 407 — ADVANCED LABORATORY**

2-4 credits.

Advanced experiments in classical and modern physics. Possible experiments include beta decay, muon lifetime, nuclear magnetic resonance, Stern-Gerlach atomic beam, Mossbauer scattering, velocity of light, Zeeman effect, and Compton scattering. Techniques for the statistical analysis of experimental data and keeping a proper research lab notebook are emphasized. Two (four) credit students will typically perform four (eight) experiments.

**PHYSICS 415 — THERMAL PHYSICS**

3 credits.

Thermodynamics, kinetic theory of gases, and statistical mechanics.

**PHYSICS 448 — ATOMIC AND QUANTUM PHYSICS**

3 credits.

Review of atomic and other quantum phenomena and special relativity; introduction to quantum mechanics treating the more advanced topics of atomic physics and applications to molecular, solid state, nuclear, and elementary particle physics and quantum statistics.

**PHYSICS 449 — ATOMIC AND QUANTUM PHYSICS**

3 credits.

Continuation of PHYSICS 448. Review of atomic and other quantum phenomena and special relativity; introduction to quantum mechanics treating the more advanced topics of atomic physics and applications to molecular, solid state, nuclear, and elementary particle physics and quantum statistics.

**PHYSICS/ENVIR ST 472 — SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND TO GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS**

3 credits.

Designed to provide those elements of physics, atmospheric sciences, chemistry, biology and geology which are essential to a scientific understanding of global environmental problems. Specific examples of such problems include global warming, stratospheric ozone depletion, acid rain and environmental toxins.

**PHYSICS 498 — DIRECTED STUDY**

1-3 credits.

Advanced-level mentored research project in physics.

**PHYSICS 499 — DIRECTED STUDY**

1-3 credits.

Advanced-level mentored research project in physics.

**PHYSICS/B M E/H ONCOL/MED PHYS 501 — RADIATION PHYSICS AND DOSIMETRY**

3 credits.

Interactions and energy deposition by ionizing radiation in matter; concepts, quantities and units in radiological physics; principles and methods of radiation dosimetry.

**PHYSICS/E C E/N E 525 — INTRODUCTION TO PLASMAS**

3 credits.

Basic description of plasmas: collective phenomena and sheaths, collisional processes, single particle motions, fluid models, equilibria, waves, electromagnetic properties, instabilities, and introduction to kinetic theory and nonlinear processes. Examples from fusion, astrophysical and materials processing processing plasmas.

**PHYSICS/E C E/N E 527 — PLASMA CONFINEMENT AND HEATING**

3 credits.

Principles of magnetic confinement and heating of plasmas for controlled thermonuclear fusion: magnetic field structures, single particle orbits, equilibrium, stability, collisions, transport, heating, modeling and diagnostics. Discussion of current leading confinement concepts: tokamaks, tandem mirrors, stellarators, reversed field pinches, etc.

**PHYSICS 531 — INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM MECHANICS**

3 credits.

Historical background and experimental basis of quantum mechanics; de Broglie waves, correspondence principle, uncertainty principle, Schrodinger equation, hydrogen atom, electron spin, Pauli principle; applications of wave mechanics.

**PHYSICS 535 — INTRODUCTION TO PARTICLE PHYSICS**

3 credits.

Review of quantum physics; introduction to particles, antiparticles and fundamental interactions; detectors and accelerators; symmetries and conservation laws; electroweak and color interactions of quarks and leptons; unification theories.

**PHYSICS 545 — INTRODUCTION TO ATOMIC STRUCTURE**

3 credits.

Nuclear atom; hydrogen atom; Bohr-Sommerfeld model, wave model, electron spin, description of quantum electron spin, description of quantum electrodynamic effects; external fields; many-electron atoms; central field, Pauli principle, multiplets, periodic table, x-ray spectra, vector coupling, systematics of ground states; nuclear effects in atomic spectra; interaction with coherent radiation, optical forces, laser cooling and trapping.

**PHYSICS/E C E 546 — LASERS**

2-3 credits.

General principles of laser operation; laser oscillation conditions; optical resonators; methods of pumping lasers, gas discharge lasers, e-beam pumped lasers, solid state lasers, chemical lasers, and dye lasers; gain measurements with lasers; applications of lasers.

**PHYSICS 551 — SOLID STATE PHYSICS**

3 credits.

Mechanical, thermal, electric, and magnetic properties of solids; band theory; semiconductors; crystal imperfections.

**PHYSICS/MED PHYS 588 — RADIATION PRODUCTION AND DETECTION**

4 credits.

Fundamental physics of ionizing radiation production and detection applied to medical science. Topics: scintillator/semiconductor detectors, ionizing radiation detectors, charged and neutral particles for external beam radiotherapy, production of radionuclides with cyclotron and linear accelerators for diagnostic and therapeutic applications, radiochemistry, and X-ray tube physics.

**PHYSICS 601 — SCIENTIFIC PRESENTATION**

2 credits.

Oral and written reports to give practice in the presentation of scientific papers.

**PHYSICS 603 — WORKSHOP IN COLLEGE PHYSICS TEACHING**

1-2 credits.

Discussion, practice, and occasional lectures on various aspects of the teaching of physics. Course planning; course materials; lecture, demonstration, and discussion techniques; laboratory; problem solving; examinations, grading, and evaluation. Problems arising in the teaching of physics; levels of difficulty, differences in talents and backgrounds; methods of presentation of various specific topics.

**PHYSICS/B M E/MED PHYS/PHMCOL-M/RADIOL 619 — MICROSCOPY OF LIFE**

3 credits.

Survey of state of the art microscopic, cellular and molecular imaging techniques, beginning with subcellular microscopy and finishing with whole animal imaging.

**PHYSICS 623 — ELECTRONIC AIDS TO MEASUREMENT**

4 credits.

Fundamentals of electronics, electronic elements, basic circuits; combinations of these into measuring instruments.

**PHYSICS 625 — APPLIED OPTICS**

4 credits.

Optical methods in research and technology. Reflection, refraction, absorption, scattering. Imaging. Sources and sensors. Schlieren methods. Interferometry. Instrumental spectroscopy. Fourier optics, image processing, holography. Laser technology, Gaussian beams, nonlinear optics.

**PHYSICS 681 — SENIOR HONORS THESIS**

3 credits.

Mentored individual research and study for students completing Physics Honors in the Major.

**PHYSICS 682 — SENIOR HONORS THESIS**

3 credits.

Mentored individual research and study for students completing Physics Honors in the Major.

**PHYSICS 691 — SENIOR THESIS**

2-3 credits.

Mentored individual research and study for students completing a thesis.

**PHYSICS 692 — SENIOR THESIS**

2-3 credits.

Mentored individual research and study for students completing a thesis.

**PHYSICS 701 — GRADUATE INTRODUCTORY SEMINARS**

1 credit.

Designed to give new students an introduction to the broad range of modern research going on at UW Physics, and to help students find research opportunities in the department. Each week, faculty from each major research area will present their research in a seminar setting. The research areas will include selected topics both in theory and experiment from biophysics; atomic, molecular, and optical physics; plasma; condensed matter; quantum information and computation; high energy and nuclear physics; particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology.

**PHYSICS 707 — QUANTUM COMPUTING LABORATORY**

4 credits.

Provides an intensive introduction to the experimental techniques of quantum computing. Students will do 8 experiments chosen from: Bell violation with entangled photons, Stern-Gerlach, Pulsed NMR, Optical pumping of Rb, Nanofabrication, Fiber optics communication, Diode pumped YAG laser, and Acousto-optic modulator.

**PHYSICS 709 — INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM COMPUTING**

3 credits.

A detailed introduction to quantum computation and quantum information processing. Basic topics of quantum mechanics that are most relevant to quantum computing, particularly measurement theory. Specialized topics such as entanglement, other measures of quantum correlation and the Bell inequalities. Classical and quantum information theory, classical and quantum complexity theory. Qubits, quantum gates, quantum circuits. Teleportation, quantum dense coding, quantum cryptography. Quantum algorithms: Deustch, Simon, Shor, Grover, and adiabatic algorithms. Basic quantum error correction: 5-qubit, Steane and Shor codes. Completion of one undergraduate course in quantum mechanics recommended, such as PHYSICS 448 or 531.

**PHYSICS 711 — THEORETICAL PHYSICS-DYNAMICS**

3 credits.

Lagrange's equations, Principle of Least Action, orbits and scattering, kinematics of rotation, rigid body dynamics, small oscillations, special relativistic dynamics, Hamiltonian formulation, canonical transformations, Hamilton-Jacobi theory, canonical perturbation theory, chaos, continuum mechanics, introduction to general relativity.

**PHYSICS 715 — STATISTICAL MECHANICS**

3 credits.

Statistical foundations, Liouville's theorem, ensembles, classical and quantum distribution functions, entropy and temperature, connection with thermodynamics, partition functions, quantum gases, non-ideal gases, phase transitions and critical phenomena, non-equilibrium problems, Boltzmann equation and the H-theorem, transport properties, connections with quantum field theory, applications of statistical mechanics to selected problems.

**PHYSICS 716 — STATISTICAL MECHANICS II**

3 credits.

Symmetries and symmetry breaking, phase transitions, mean field theory, critical exponents, scaling hypothesis, renormalization group, diagrammatic expansion, epsilon-expansion, exact solution of the 2d Ising model. Boltzman kinetic equation, H-theorem, Fokker-Planck and Langevin equations, Born-Markov master equation, Lindblad superoperators, classical and quantum noise, theory of amplifiers.

**PHYSICS 717 — RELATIVITY**

3 credits.

Special and general theories of relativity, relativistic electrodynamics, cosmology, unified field theories. PHYSICS 721

**PHYSICS 721 — THEORETICAL PHYSICS-ELECTRODYNAMICS**

3 credits.

Electrostatics, magnetostatics, Green functions, boundary value problems, macroscopic media, Maxwell's equations, the stress tensor and conservation laws, electromagnetic waves, wave propagation, dispersion, waveguides, radiation, multipole expansions, diffraction and scattering, special relativity, covariance of Maxwell's equations, Lienard-Wiechert potentials, radiation by accelerated charges. PHYSICS 322 or equiv

**PHYSICS/E C E/N E 724 — WAVES AND INSTABILITIES IN PLASMAS**

3 credits.

Waves in a cold plasma, wave-plasma interactions, waves in a hot plasma, Landau damping, cyclotron damping, magneto-hydrodynamic equilibria and instabilities, microinstabilities, introduction to nonlinear processes, and experimental applications. Basic knowledge of plasmas [such as PHYSICS/E C E/N E 525] and advanced electromagnetics [such as PHYSICS 721 or E C E 740] strongly encouraged.

**PHYSICS/E C E/N E 725 — PLASMA KINETIC THEORY AND RADIATION PROCESSES**

3 credits.

Coulomb Collisions, Boltzmann equation, Fokker-Planck methods, dynamical friction, neoclassical diffusion, collision operators radiation processes and experimental applications. Basic knowledge of plasmas [such as PHYSICS/E C E/N E 525] and advanced electromagnetics [such as PHYSICS 721 or E C E 740] strongly encouraged.

**PHYSICS/E C E/N E 726 — PLASMA MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS**

3 credits.

MHD equations and validity in hot plasmas; magnetic structure and magnetic flux coordinates; equilibrium in various configurations; stability formulation, energy principle, classification of instabilities; ideal and resistive instability in various configurations, evolution of nonlinear tearing modes; force-free equilibria, helicity, MHD dynamo; experimental applications. Basic knowledge of plasmas [such as PHYSICS/E C E/N E 525] and advanced electromagnetics [such as PHYSICS 721 or E C E 740] strongly encouraged.

**PHYSICS 731 — QUANTUM MECHANICS**

3 credits.

Schrodinger equation, operator theory, matrix mechanics, transformation theory, Heisenberg representation, orbital angular momentum, bound-state problems, scattering theory, stationary perturbation theory, degenerate systems, time-dependent perturbation theory, Born approximation, other approximation methods. PHYSICS 449 or 531, or equiv

**PHYSICS 732 — QUANTUM MECHANICS**

3 credits.

Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter, quantization of the electromagnetic field, spontaneous transitions, identical particles and spin, addition of angular momenta, tensor operators, complex atoms, Hartree approximation, molecules, Dirac equation, relativistic effects in atoms. PHYSICS 721 731

**PHYSICS 735 — PARTICLE PHYSICS**

3 credits.

Structure of elementary particles, quarks and gluons, introduction to calculational techniques of particle interactions (Feynman diagrams), constituent models of electroweak and strong interactions and associated phenomenological techniques. PHYSICS 535, 731 or equiv or cons inst

**PHYSICS 736 — EXPERIMENTAL METHODS IN NUCLEAR-, PARTICLE-, AND ASTROPHYSICS**

3 credits.

Interaction of particles with matter; detector techniques at colliding beam machines, in nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology; experimental strategies in detector design; principles of simulation and Monte Carlo methods, error analysis and statistical techniques in data analysis. PHYSICS 535 or cons inst

**PHYSICS/E C E 746 — QUANTUM ELECTRONICS**

3 credits.

Elementary aspects of Lagrange theory of fields and field quantization; Bose, Fermi and Pauli operators; interaction of fields; quantum theory of damping and fluctuations; applications to lasers, nonlinear optics, and quantum optics. Knowledge of lasers [such as PHYSICS/E C E 546] and graduate-level electromagnetics [such as E C E 740 or PHYSICS 721] strongly encouraged.

**PHYSICS/E C E 748 — LINEAR WAVES**

3 credits.

General considerations of linear wave phenomena; one dimensional waves; two and three dimensional waves; wave equations with constant coefficients; inhomogenous media; random media. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations; asymptotic methods. Knowledge of electromagnetics [such as E C E 320 or PHYSICS 321], mechanics [such as M E 340], or vibrations [such as M E 440] strongly encouraged.

**PHYSICS/E C E/N E 749 — COHERENT GENERATION AND PARTICLE BEAMS**

3 credits.

Fundamental theory and recent advances in coherent radiation charged particle beam sources (microwave to X-ray wavelengths) including free electron lasers, wiggler/wave-particle dynamics, Cerenkov masers, gyrotrons, coherent gain and efficiency, spontaneous emission, beam sources and quality, related accelerator concepts experimental results and applications.

**PHYSICS 751 — ADVANCED SOLID STATE PHYSICS**

3 credits.

Lattice dynamics; band theory; Fermi surfaces; electrodynamics of metals; optical properties; transport properties. PHYSICS 731 and 551 or equiv

**PHYSICS 772 — HIGH ENERGY ASTROPHYSICS**

3 credits.

Interactions among the particles, fields, and radiation of interstellar and intergalactic space. Gamma-ray, x-ray, and cosmic ray production, propagation, and detection. PHYSICS 721 or 322, basic knowledge of spec relativity, basic diff equations, or cons inst

**PHYSICS 779 — ADVANCED QUANTUM COMPUTING**

3 credits.

Explores applications of quantum theory to both the hardware and the software that underpin modern quantum information technology. Advanced quantum circuit theory: Clifford group and Gottesman-Knill theorem, Mathematica code. Decoherence: density matrices, probability distributions, T1 and T2. Advanced error correction: master equation, Kraus operators, fault tolerance, quantum tomography. Hardware: Trapped ions, Paul traps, sideband cooling, CZ and MS gates, neutral atoms, superconductors, quantum dots.

**PHYSICS 799 — INDEPENDENT STUDY**

1-3 credits.

Graduate-level mentored research project in physics.

**PHYSICS 801 — SPECIAL TOPICS IN THEORETICAL PHYSICS**

1-3 credits.

Selected topics in theoretical physics.

**PHYSICS 805 — SPECIAL TOPICS IN PHYSICS**

1-3 credits.

Special topics in physics at the graduate level.

**PHYSICS 831 — ADVANCED QUANTUM MECHANICS**

3 credits.

Quantum theory of free and interacting fields, formal scattering theory, dispersion theory. PHYSICS 732

**PHYSICS 832 — ADVANCED QUANTUM MECHANICS**

3 credits.

Continuation of PHYSICS 831. Quantum theory of free and interacting fields, formal scattering theory, dispersion theory.

**PHYSICS 835 — COLLIDER PHYSICS PHENOMENOLOGY**

2-3 credits.

Standard model. Application to e+e-, proton-antiproton, pp, and ep colliders. Jets. Weak boson, heavy-quark, and Higgs boson production and decay. Quarkonia. Neutral B meson mixing. Grand unification. Supersymmetry.

**PHYSICS/E C E 848 — NONLINEAR WAVES**

3 credits.

General considerations of nonlinear wave phenomena; nonlinear hyperbolic waves; nonlinear dispersion; nonlinear geometrical optics; Whitham's variational theory; nonlinear and parametric instabilities; solitary waves; inverse scattering method. Knowledge of electromagnetics [such as E C E 320 or PHYSICS 321] or mechanics [such as M E 340] encouraged.

**PHYSICS 900 — COLLOQUIUM**

0-1 credits.

Lectures by staff and visitors. Cons inst if taken for 1 cr

**PHYSICS/ASTRON 910 — SEMINAR IN ASTROPHYSICS**

0-1 credits.

Current topics in astrophysics.

**PHYSICS/E C E/N E 922 — SEMINAR IN PLASMA PHYSICS**

0-1 credits.

Current topics in plasma physics.

**PHYSICS 990 — RESEARCH**

1-12 credits.

Research supervised by individual faculty members.