L I S 201 — THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

4 credits.

Examines important social, legal, and historical contexts of information and information technologies, and explores significant social, legal, and moral questions that surround those technologies.

L I S 202 — INFORMATIONAL DIVIDES AND DIFFERENCES IN A MULTICULTURAL SOCIETY

3 credits.

Explores the impact of and barriers to access to information on the lives of low-income ethnic/racial minority communities in the United States. Provides introduction to contemporary information society from a sociological perspective.

L I S 301 — INFORMATION LITERACIES IN ONLINE SPACES

3 credits.

Explores information and digital literacies needed by today's online consumers and producers. Covers skills and topics related to access (digital divides, power relations in online communities, regulation), analysis (assessing credibility, evaluating risks, analyzing representation) and production (blogging, videosharing, gaming).

L I S/​LITTRANS  319 — SCANDINAVIAN CHILDREN'S LITERATURE

3-4 credits.

Forms and themes of Scandinavian children's literature from the nineteenth century to the present. Exploration of the dominant concerns of authors, adult and non-adult audiences. Film adaptations and Scandinavian-American materials included.

L I S 340 — TOPICS IN INFORMATION STUDIES - SOCIAL ASPECTS

3 credits.

Exploration of contemporary issues related to information in society. Subject will vary. Examples include, but not restricted to: Information Ethics, Digital and Print Culture, Global Information Flows.

L I S 341 — TOPICS IN INFORMATION STUDIES - TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS

1-3 credits.

Exploration of information technology and information management subjects. Subjects will vary. Examples include, but not restricted to: A Social History of Information Infrastructure, Digital Productivity Tools and Debates, Digital Publishing Standards and Tools, Digital Preservation.

L I S 350 — HISTORY AND FUTURE OF BOOKS

3 credits.

This course is framed by a question about what books are, what books have been, and what books might be: past, present, and future. The course also assumes that "book" is a capacious term, or a placeholding one, for an object that becomes the site of questions and debates about a variety of media, expressions, and recording practices. We live in a moment of rapid media evolution, and yet we have seen the book endure and change as a form. Academic fields including book history, digital humanities, media studies, and human computer interaction (to name only a few) all have something at stake in the form of the book - not to mention industry-oriented interests in e-readers, book retail, publishing - and likewise this course will approach the book from a number of perspectives. Our primary goal is to understand the book (and, in a wider sense, information) as an active technology that shapes peoples, perceptions, and cultures rather than serving as a passive receptacle of them. This course also meets the requirements for Comm B, which means we will be thinking about our own written and spoken productions by way of this material. Includes hands on research exercises in UW special collections library and Wisconsin Historical Society archive collections.

L I S 351 — INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL INFORMATION

3 credits.

This entry level course prepares students to use information technologies to solve problems and help people through implementing information infrastructures such as websites, databases and metadata. Students will explore information access, information representation, usability and information policy issues, and increase their understanding of the social impacts and social shaping of information infrastructures.

L I S 399 — INDEPENDENT READING AND RESEARCH

1-4 credits.

Concentrated work on a subject or problem of the student's need or interest; students must submit a written report, paper, or other product covering the work accomplished.

L I S/​LEGAL ST  460 — SURVEILLANCE, PRIVACY, AND POLICE POWERS

3 credits.

Examines individual privacy and government information collection in law enforcement, security, public health, administrative law, and other contexts from a variety of disciplinary perspectives.

L I S/​FOLKLORE  490 — FIELD METHODS AND THE PUBLIC PRESENTATION OF FOLKLORE

3 credits.

The course combines a fieldwork practicum with scrutiny of the cultural, political, and ethical dimensions underlying the documentation and public presentation of folklore through festivals, exhibitions, publications, and audio-visual productions.

L I S 500 — CODE AND POWER

3 credits.

Prepares students to analyze and critique the portrayal of race, gender and computing in various media outlets and to consider their own potential as contributors to the computing industries in light of media portrayals and their own self-perceptions. As students confront assumptions about gender race and computing, this course will also equip them with the skills necessary to confidently design, develop, and discuss web scripting aspects related to HTML/CSS/PHP website development.

L I S/​NURSING/​OCC THER  517 — DIGITAL HEALTH: INFORMATION AND TECHNOLOGIES SUPPORTING CONSUMERS AND PATIENTS

3 credits.

This course is appropriate for undergraduate or graduate students considering careers in the health or allied health professions, service professions, and the social services, particularly those concerned with the medically under served and members of racial/ethnic/socioeconomic minority groups. This course covers topics within the US context including: the identification of appropriate and accurate materials for consumer health and family education; the ethical and organizational policy issues that arise when providing consumer and family health information in different settings; the role of the public media in disseminating health information; the health-related information needs and preferences of racial/ethnic minority populations; and health information technologies, from search engines to websites to apps, that put people in charge of managing their own health information.

L I S/​HISTORY  569 — HISTORY OF AMERICAN LIBRARIANSHIP

3 credits.

Development of American librarianship from Colonial times to the present, with special reference to the relationship of library institutions to their contemporary social, economic, cultural and political environments.

L I S 601 — INFORMATION: PERSPECTIVES AND CONTEXTS

3 credits.

Provides an introduction to major themes and topics in information studies as well as the language and literature of the field and related disciplines. This course is about information, information agencies, and being an information professional. We look at social, historical, ethical, legal and political issues surrounding information dissemination, use, control, and management.

L I S 602 — INFORMATION: ORGANIZATION AND SEARCH

3 credits.

This course introduces basic concepts and principles of information organization and online searching. Students gain knowledge of information organization and retrieval theories and methods and knowledge of large database structures and database searching techniques. Students critically examine the impact of information organization practices on organizations and culture. Through readings, lectures, discussions, and exercises, students will learn how to develop information organizing systems and to evaluate and improve search systems.

L I S 603 — RESEARCH AND ASSESSMENT FOR INFORMATION PROFESSIONALS

3 credits.

Introduces students to research, evaluation and assessment practices. Prepares students to design and implement a research or assessment project. Provides an overview of commonly employed data collection methodologies and introduces students to both qualitative and quantitative analysis approaches that may be employed in evaluation, assessment and research.

L I S/​COMP SCI  611 — USER EXPERIENCE DESIGN 1

3 credits.

Introduces students to the user experience design process, key stages involved in designing for user experience, and tasks, methods, and tools involved at each stage at an introductory level, including understanding and modeling users, needs, and context and performing basic design, prototyping, and formative evaluation.

L I S/​COMP SCI  612 — USER EXPERIENCE DESIGN 2

3 credits.

Students advance their understanding of the UX design process by learning and applying tools and techniques at an intermediate level, including conceptual and interaction design, more advanced methods for prototyping of design solutions, and iterative design based on user models and evaluation. Students apply skills learned in the course to develop and iteratively improve prototypes for a project.

L I S/​COMP SCI  613 — USER EXPERIENCE DESIGN 3

3 credits.

Hone skills in assessment of digital user experience design including assessment of accessibility, information architecture, interactions, contribution to organizational goals, content workflows, trace data and advanced usability assessment. Students learn and apply core concepts of information architecture to improve digital design. Students gain understanding of how to find, analyze and interpret trace data to assess design. Students apply understanding of social aspects of digital media through exploration and application of participatory and value sensitive design approaches and analysis methods, broader stakeholder analysis and analysis that examine the fit between culture and task.

L I S/​COMP SCI  614 — USER EXPERIENCE DESIGN CAPSTONE

1 credit.

Applies a design studio critique approach to produce a learning environment of collaborative and interdisciplinary peer critique and learning, in addition to provide expert feedback and suggestions. Students will present and defend the latest iteration of the user experience design project they developed in earlier courses while learning about the professions associated with digital user experience design.

L I S 616 — RECORDS MANAGEMENT

1-3 credits.

An introduction to the role of records in society and to the principles and practices involved in managing records (both paper and electronic) in private and public sector organizations. Grad st in SLIS or cons inst

L I S/​B M I/​I SY E  617 — HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEMS

3 credits.

Provides grounding in core concepts of health information systems. Major applications include clinical information systems, language and standards, decision support, image technology and digital libraries. Evaluation of IE tools and perspectives designed to improve the quality, efficiency and effectiveness of health information.

L I S/​MUSIC  619 — MUSIC RESEARCH METHODS AND MATERIALS

3 credits.

Historical and contemporary bibliography resources for musical scholarship; general reference tools of scholarly work and specific musicological works.

L I S/​CURRIC  620 — FIELD PROJECT IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION AGENCIES

3 credits.

Analysis of field experience through seminars, individual conferences, required reading and consultations with cooperating librarians and information specialists. Enrollment limited.

L I S 622 — CHILDRENS LITERATURE

3 credits.

Traditional sources to the present; criticism and evaluation; contemporary trends and issues. Techniques of reading guidance in school or public library in relationship to developmental interests, needs and skills of children.

L I S 624 — STORY TELLING AND ORAL LITERATURE

3 credits.

The oral tradition in world literature for children. Techniques of interpretation through story telling; development of story telling programs in library, school and community.

L I S 629 — MULTICULTURAL LITERATURE FOR CHILDREN AND YOUNG ADULTS

3 credits.

Focus on literature written or illustrated by U.S. citizens or residents which depicts people of color both within and outside the U.S. Emphasis on literature of past fifteen years with comparison to earlier literature. Publishing trends.

L I S 631 — YOUNG ADULT LITERATURE

3 credits.

Survey of background and current media interests and needs of young adults, with emphasis on reading interests. Critical examination of media trends, materials, selection criteria, guiding the individual user, censorship problems, as they relate to the young adult.

L I S 632 — METADATA STANDARDS AND XML

3 credits.

This course provides an overview of the design and use of metadata for resource description and retrieval in digital environments. Students learn to implement and evaluate standard schemes used in cultural heritage, commercial and other contexts including Dublin Core, MODS, VRA and others. Issues of information behavior, interoperability, quality control, vocabulary control and project management are covered.

L I S 635 — REFERENCE AND INFORMATION SERVICE

3 credits.

Theories, principles and practices in selected aspects of reference and information services.

L I S 639 — PEDAGOGICAL THEORY AND PRACTICE FOR INFORMATION PROFESSIONALS

3 credits.

Introduction to pedagogical theory, training tools, and teaching skills needed in a variety of informational instructional settings such as academic and public libraries, archival institutions, museums, and software training facilities. Applicable for students interested in information literacy instruction, online teaching, technology training, and group instruction..

L I S 640 — TOPICS IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION STUDIES

1-3 credits.

Current issues in library and information studies that are not addressed in sufficient depth in existing courses or that combine facets of several existing courses.

L I S 641 — THE SCHOOL LIBRARY/MEDIA CENTER

3 credits.

Its function in the educational program; the management, organization, and development of its media resources and services.

L I S 642 — READING INTERESTS OF ADULTS

3 credits.

An examination of the nature and societal functions of a variety of mass media-generated adult reading materials, the standards by which they are judged, and their relationship to contemporary library and information science fields.

L I S 644 — DIGITAL TOOLS, TRENDS AND DEBATES

3 credits.

Overview of information and communications technologies, digital media, and standards in relationship to information agencies, within the context of current societal controversies. Promotes technical knowledge of ICT and critical analysis of controversies surrounding ICT development, use and modification.

L I S/​LEGAL ST  645 — INTELLECTUAL FREEDOM

3 credits.

An examination of intellectual freedom in the United States including censorship, minors' rights, the Internet, privacy, and copyright with focus on theoretical questions related to the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, and historical developments.

L I S 646 — INTRODUCTION TO INFO ARCHITECTURE AND INTERACTION DESIGN FOR THE WEB

3 credits.

Introduces students to basic concepts in information architecture, digital interaction design, usability testing, navigation, evaluation, and accessibility through planning, design and development of a web based information product or service. Students will also learn introductory web development technologies.

L I S/​ART HIST/​HISTORY/​JOURN  650 — HISTORY OF BOOKS AND PRINT CULTURE IN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA

3 credits.

History of books and print culture in the West from ancient times to the present. Focus on the influence of reading and writing on social, cultural, and intellectual life. Methodologies, theories, and sources for study of book and print culture history.

L I S 651 — CATALOGING AND CLASSIFICATION

3 credits.

Basic cataloging and classification principles and suitable techniques. Includes descriptive cataloging, selected entry headings, Sears subject headings, Dewey Decimal Classification, book numbers, and cataloging with supplied copy including OCLC editing.

L I S 652 — XML AND LINKED DATA

3 credits.

This course introduces the technical underpinnings of XML and linked data (RDF) as used in information agencies, sufficient for students to learn, use, and leverage newly-encountered markup and metadata languages.

L I S 653 — GOVERNMENT INFORMATION SOURCES

3 credits.

Issues of United States government information policy. Structure, policies, and procedures of the Depository Library System. Selection, acquisition, and problems of access to government information sources, including electronic formats.

L I S 654 — INFORMATION SERVICES MANAGEMENT

3 credits.

Survey of concepts and skills necessary to perform in an information services organization. Service needs assessment, goal and objective setting, staffing, budgeting and evaluation.

L I S 655 — COLLECTION MANAGEMENT

3 credits.

A course in collection development designed to teach professional skills in selection and control of collections. The course examines large societal forces affecting the ways librarians have traditionally built collections and contemporary changes in aCcess and ownership.

L I S 658 — PUBLISHING, KNOWLEDGE INSTITUTIONS AND SOCIETY: E-REVOLUTIONS?

3 credits.

Examines change in the publishing industries in the U.S. and globally. Students gain knowledge of current trends, processes, and standards in trade and scholarly publishing. Students critically examine changes in stakeholders, workflows and financial arrangements in the publishing industries. Includes an examination of copyright law, licensing practices, and open knowledge practices.

L I S 661 — INFORMATION ETHICS AND POLICY

3 credits.

Overview of modern ethical theories and how they inform information agency policies and practices; examines selected policy issues relating to information and communications; includes topics such as intellectual property, privacy, censorship, equity of access.

L I S/​LEGAL ST  663 — INTRODUCTION TO CYBERLAW

3 credits.

This is an introductory course in the law of cyberspace. The emphasis is on critical thinking about a broad variety of legal and policy problems that arise because of ever-changing information and communication technologies.

L I S 665 — TOPICS IN RACE AND ETHNICITY IN THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

3 credits.

This course discusses issues in the provision of information services in a multiethnic and multilingual society. It also discusses the role of information institutions in promoting and preserving ethnic heritage.

L I S 668 — DIGITAL CURATION AND COLLECTIONS

3 credits.

Introduces students to core concepts and new developments in digital curation, preservation and digital collections. Topics include: digitization of various media; digital preservation; media archeology; basics of research data management; digital collection technologies and workflows; intellectual-property issues; metadata as applied in digital collections; digital collections planning and evaluation; trusted digital repositories; funding of digital collection projects and sustainability.

L I S/​JOURN  677 — CONCEPTS AND TOOLS FOR DATA ANALYSIS AND VISUALIZATION

3 credits.

Ours has become a data society. Like at no other time, our world--the natural world, from storm systems to diseases; governments and companies; and our conversations with friends and relatives, even our movements--is recorded in digital format. A few years ago, Google CEO Eric Schmidt famously stated that "There was 5 exabytes of information created between the dawn of civilization through 2003, but that much information is now created every 2 days, and the pace is increasing." (An exabyte is 1 trillion megabytes.) The result is that professional communicators in journalism and mass communication, as well as researchers and private firms, now literally have more data than they know what to do with. There is tremendous need across our society for people who are able to use data to investigate important questions, draw useful insights from those data, and communicate those insights to others--and also to be realistic and honest about what data can and cannot do. That is what this class is for: it is an introduction to the world of data, how data can be used to answer questions and those answers can be effectively and ethically communicated. More specifically, we will offer a combination of conceptual training, instruction in specific tools for data analysis and visualization, and the opportunity to put new skills to use in a final project. This course is intended for Juniors, Seniors and Graduate students and by instructor permission. Research methods experience preferred.

L I S 678 — PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION OF LIBRARY AND ARCHIVES MATERIALS

3 credits.

Basic concepts, principles, and approaches to protection and care of library and archives material, including nature and structure of paper- and plastic-based materials, deterioration, preservation management, disaster prevention, reformatting, and repair. Laboratory experience offered.

L I S/​E P D  703 — MANAGING DIGITAL INFORMATION

1 credit.

This course helps professionals to effectively and ethically protect and organize the information that they collect, create, and manage. It also presents collaboration tools and techniques for information creation and management.

L I S 707 — DATA VISUALIZATION AND COMMUNICATION FOR DECISION MAKING

3 credits.

Introduces key concepts in data visualization and communication including how and why visualization can be an effective tool for summarizing, analyzing and communicating about data, and limitations and challenges of using visualization techniques. Students will use contemporary software to develop visualization dashboards and presentations as well as plan appropriate types of visualization(s) based on source data, audience, and goals, evaluate visualizations for effectiveness and bias.

L I S 712 — THE PUBLIC LIBRARY

3 credits.

Library service based on knowledge of structure and government, personnel, resources, legislation, building, management and planning, public relations and marketing.

L I S 722 — COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES

3 credits.

Place of the library and librarian in the instructional program; special units of study devoted to administration of the library, budgets, buildings, departmental libraries and cooperative ventures.

L I S 732 — STRATEGIC INFORMATION SERVICES

3 credits.

Developing, managing and evaluating information services to corporate, government, research, small business, and community organizations. Overviews of knowledge management, business intelligence, industry analysis, information brokering. Gain skills in information service entrepreneurship and marketing information services. Overview of changes within the profession and networking within the professional community.

L I S/​HISTORY  734 — INTRODUCTION TO ARCHIVES AND RECORDS MANAGEMENT

3 credits.

An introduction to the archives profession and basic theory and practice of archives and records administration, including the uses of primary sources in research, appraisal, access, and preservation.

L I S 751 — DATABASE DESIGN FOR LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION AGENCIES

3 credits.

Introduction to database management systems, the database design process and database management issues, current trends and developments in the database field with a focus on library database systems.

L I S 755 — ELECTRONIC RESOURCE MANAGEMENT & LICENSING

3 credits.

Management, policy and technology issues associated with licensed digital library resources such as e-journals, e-books, full text and citation databases, digital audio and video collections, and e-references resources. Includes a significant copyright and licensing component.

L I S 765 — ARCHIVES USER SERVICES AND OUTREACH

3 credits.

This course looks at the theories, principles, and practices involved in making archival material accessible to the public. Particular emphasis is placed on (1) the role that archival description plays in mediating access to archival materials, (2) on the public service and public programming components of archival work.

L I S 768 — DIGITAL HUMANITIES ANALYTICS

3 credits.

Learn and apply introductory technology-related concepts and skills to plan, implement and assess data-driven projects in the humanities, social sciences and other fields. Topics include identifying relevant existing digitized materials, web scraping, text encoding, topic modeling, mapping, social network analysis and other approaches for collecting, analyzing and visualizing data.

L I S 772 — LIBRARY SERVICES TO CHILDREN AND YOUNG ADULTS

3 credits.

The theory and structure of public library service to children and young people, its function in the community, and techniques of administration. Seminar and field work.

L I S/​CURRIC/​ED PSYCH  803 — COMPUTATIONAL RESEARCH METHODS

3 credits.

Provides a broad overview of ways of formulating and investigating novel questions with tools from educational data mining and learning analytics including social network analysis, natural language processing, Markov modeling, Bayesian inference, and agent-based modeling.

L I S 810 — TOPICS IN RESEARCH METHODS FOR LIBRARY AND INFORMATION STUDIES

1-3 credits.

Critical examination of selected methods of research methods and design; for example, bibliometric techniques, scale design.

L I S 818 — ARCHIVES ACCESSIONING AND APPRAISAL

3 credits.

Theories and principles behind archival decisions to acquire records and designate them as worthy of long-term retention in an archive. Emphasis on understanding archival views about society, the role of the archivist, and the attribution of value to archival material.

L I S 820 — TOPICS IN COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT

1-3 credits.

Provides a practical experience for students to work in communities with literacy and other information needs. Examples of community work include designing and implementing literacy programs for school-aged children and organizing book and magazine collections in after-school facilities.

L I S 822 — INFORMATION USE AND USERS

3 credits.

Survey of information needs, information seeking behavior, and information use by people in their various roles, situations, and contexts. Methods that are used to study information needs, uses, and information seeking behavior, including community analysis.

L I S 826 — FIELD PROJECT IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION LITERACY INSTRUCTION

3 credits.

Guided practice in the development and implementation of information literacy curriculum at the university level. Participants will assist campus teaching librarians with the Communication Requirement A courses and perform other teaching related tasks at assigned site.

L I S 839 — SPECIAL COLLECTIONS

1-3 credits.

A topical course focusing on a special subject (art, law, music, health sciences) or format (maps, microforms, rare books, iconographic materials). Issues related to collection development, acquisitions, reference, indexing and management. May be repeated for cr. a max of 6 cr applic to the Master degree

L I S 847 — TOPICS IN USER SERVICES

1-3 credits.

Special aspects of user services, publics served, skills in service and service models involved. May include such topics as information and referral; digital reference; literacy services; services to the elderly; services to under-served populations and nontraditional users.

L I S 848 — TOPICS IN LITERATURE FOR CHILDREN AND YOUNG ADULTS

1-3 credits.

Seminar. Trends and issues in children's and young adult reading, viewing, and listening interests. Topics vary. Typical focuses: realistic young adult novel; publishing trends; rise of book clubs; illustrations and illustrators; mixed media programming.

L I S 855 — TOPICS IN INFORMATION AGENCY MANAGEMENT

1-3 credits.

Critical examination of selected management techniques in the areas of materials control, physical plant operations, personnel programs, budget preparation and statistical reporting. May also focus on a particular type of information agency; e.g., data analysis centers, research libraries, or public libraries.

L I S 875 — TOPICS IN INFORMATION PROCESSING AND RETRIEVAL

1-3 credits.

Current issues in technologies for information processing and retrival in libraries and information agencies. May be repeated for cr; a max of 6 cr applicable to Masters degree

L I S 879 — DIGITAL LIBRARIES

3 credits.

Technologies and other related topics/issues in developing and maintaining digital libraries. Covers digitization and organization of information, user-centered systems design and evaluation, public services, funding, and so on. Project-based course.

L I S 910 — SMR-RESEARCH DESIGN & METHODOLOGY FOR LIBRARY & INFORMATION STUDIES

3 credits.

Examines key issues in research design, including how to formulate research questions and shape scholarly research to make valid descriptive and causal inferences. Analysis and evaluation of research designed and conducted with different theoretical frameworks and methodologies; guided proposal preparation.

L I S 931 — SEMINAR IN INFORMATION POLICY, MANAGEMENT AND INSTITUTIONS

3 credits.

Survey of research and theorizing of: information policy and law, the management of information within and between organizations - including information technology and information labor, and investigation of traditional and new institutions in the information society.

L I S 940 — SEMINAR IN INFORMATION USE AND USERS IN CONTEXT

3 credits.

Exploration of information needs, information seeking behavior, and information use by people in various roles, situations, and contexts that go beyond libraries. It includes exploring factors that influence a user's information needs and behavior.

L I S 950 — SEMINAR IN LIS FOUNDATIONS: HISTORIES, PHILOSOPHIES AND DEBATES

3 credits.

An in-depth examination of some aspect(s) of the historical and philosophical foundations of LIS as it has been transformed through time and space, within the broader cultural context.

L I S 975 — SEMINAR IN INFORMATION ORGANIZATION AND ACCESS

3 credits.

Critical examination of technical and non-technical aspects and conitive/socio-cultural processes and implications of systems and models of information organization, retrieval and transfer. Introduces different research approaches and topic areas, including relevance, search behavior, knowledge representation, and systems design and evaluation.

L I S/​HISTORY  976 — SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN ARCHIVES-MANUSCRIPTS ADMINISTRATION

3 credits.

A research seminar. Contemporary problems in archives administration, with special types of archival institutions and special classes of archival material.

L I S/​HISTORY  977 — THE PRACTICE OF ARCHIVES-MANUSCRIPTS ADMINISTRATION

3 credits.

Practical training in the collecting and accessioning, arrangement, describing and servicing of archives and manuscript holdings in the Division of Archives and Manuscripts of the State Historical Society under the direct supervision of the chief archivist or a member of the professional staff.

L I S 990 — RESEARCH AND THESIS

1-9 credits.

Doctoral students.

L I S 999 — INDEPENDENT READING AND RESEARCH

1-4 credits.

Concentrated work on a subject or problem of the student's need or interest; students must submit a typewritten report or paper covering the work accomplished.